четвъртък, 3 март 2011 г.

The first commandos - South African



Many linguists define the word "commando" as "intelligence, diversionary-troop group, Commando is a member of that group. The term "commando" came into use during the 40 years of the twentieth century. Then in Britain appear first army special forces. The initiative for creating them is Winston Churchill. Here is what I wrote in a letter to Minister Anthony identity: "It seems to me that Germany was right, as used in World War I and attack parts today ... France was defeated by a very small group of well armed soldiers from the elite divitsii." During the summer of 1940 Churchill, the award of senior military to begin work on the formation of special forces assignment intends to use primarily behind enemy lines for diversions and guerrilla wars. Units began to call "battalions of special service. But one of the first special fighters appeared another name - commandos. Its author was an officer of the British Colonel Dudley Clarke, who is South African in origin. He often told of warriors from the first battalion of a special service for legendary Boor guerrillas, organized in groups "command" during the Boer War (1899-1902 on). "Third is not lit cigarette from a match. This term also has come since the Boer War. Soldiers from the British colonial army rule that expression, fearing the Boer snipers. They say that when the first smoker lit matches to clog, burat, which lies in ambush, raised their arms when blocked second - burat its Sights and blocked when the third - burat shoot. And it is exactly on target. The third failed to plug because it falls dead. For phenomenal speed and accuracy of the storms, the word means farmer in Dutch, descendants of early settlers evropeski in South Africa are legends. They know how to shoot accurately, even in pitch darkness, landmarks are lit by a match, and votes. Every adult farmer had weapons and was a real sniper. If you do not have these qualities easily become victims of Zulu soldiers. Storms mastered to perfection in the shooting motion. South Africa's white settlers waged a continuous struggle for survival. Every night thousands of threatening hazards - Zulu, bloodthirsty predators. Learned the art of disguise. They were real hunters. Furthermore, had the qualities of innate intelligence. French officer "Gilergas writes:" Burat is an excellent scout because we know his country, his eye is more acute than that of the opponent. The air in South Africa is very clean and every eye can see a great distance ... "The first settlers from Europe were Dutch, Germans and Frenchmen. They appear in South Africa in 1652 over time form the ethnic group of storms (afrikaneri) with their specific language - Afrikaans. To protect storm sazdalispetsialni squads, which they called "command". These include the most experienced militarily farmers. In 1816 squad of 135 farmers fought the 12,000 Aborigines. Storms skillful use of its advantage in weaponry and horses that only a few hours removed from do a third of African warriors. The tactics of the Boers was the following: they invaded with their low, but very durable horses crowd Africans. The sound of hoofs and cries of Military bearded storms, with hat, causing confusion in the ranks of the Aborigines. Enemy approached, they fired. Then, without enabling the Zulu to realize transferred. Then the horsemen Stop horses line up in battle order and again thrown in the attack. With this tactic the Boers achieved several goals - part of the Zulu, departing to pursue them, quickly got tired and after the collision were not so accurate. Finally acting pace "tide," the army of natives losing their formation and management. So 12 000 Aborigines were scattered and their best soldiers killed. 135's commandos none even wounded. Later this tactic called British Hit and run - hit and run! In 1877 Britain declared South Africa as its territory. Freedom-storms under threat of occupation together to vazstanali. Each farm submitted their archers storms opitni snipers and hunters began to form the commando squads. The first collision with the storms destroyed about 400 colonial shooters who are victims of several dozen snipers, masked master. British understood that they will not obey the storms and in March 1881 had concluded a peace treaty. Storms received the right to create two independent republics - the Orange and Transvaal. Group of commands given warrior status poluredovni parts of these republics. Their task was to extinguish the internal disturbances and to protect the country from external enemies. Every Boer should have weapons, supplies and horse. Second Boer War broke out in 1899 English is well prepared, several regiments were transferred from the mother and the other colonies - Canada, Australia, Malaysia, Rhodesia,. Initially, the British suffered several defeats. Mainly due to psychological adjustment: a well-trained fighter is not thought to be serious rider farmer opponent. However horsemen farmers causing the British defeat after defeat. All documents define the storms as masculine, tough and almost fanatical religious warriors. As shooters just were not equal to yourself. Gradually increasing the number to the British. In India and elsewhere were examined prehvalrevi elite parts with experienced commanders. Due to its fewness afrikanerite switched to guerrilla warfare. Right here storms indicate how effective the groups command. They used all known at this time methods of guerrilla warfare: destroy small military units and posts, capture train with food, interrupted rail, deprived of British food and water, arranged sniper ambushes. Using the experience intelligence. Often dressed in English clothes, making his appearance of Englishmen. Bios of the group of commands skillful use methods of deception of the enemy, which today vlizav ton arsenal of special forces around the world. But the assembly unit of Manchester and Gordanskiya regiment after a long bloody battle captured fortified height of storms. There are many cases where intelligence Boor successfully tapping strengthened and protected sites of the British, simply because the issues of meeting the English soldiers. Storms correctly assessed the knowledge of the language of the enemy. British royal elite shooters were taking over many defenses of storms, but then with tears in his eyes a few losses. Storms able to quickly extract the lessons of the victories and defeats. They fought not with quantity but with skill. The famous writer Arthur Conan Doyle, took part in the Boer War, characterized storms: "They were brave hunters and the first groups in the war showed the highest skill to change their tactics in accordance with the actions of the enemy." Storms understand that because fewness can not participate in open battle. So looking for new tactical methods. True spetsnazovska operation of storms is the killing of a British armored train on October 15, 1899 British General Hildvard commanded armored train to move near Kolenso. Several squad commandos Boor, well masked, occupied positions along the route. When the train thundering profuchal nearby, several people crept out of the path and in minutes dismantled the rails, cutting path of a train to retreat. On the train they found about 900 fuzileri Dublin and other parts, they were attacked by another teen Boor. The driver gave reversing as increased power of the locomotive. Huge armored train vletyal in locations dismantled rails. Several platforms fuzileri were shot by snipers Boer. Ironically, the train is British journalist Winston Churchill. He escaped from a sniper bullet storms, but got trapped in storms where escaped. When in 1940 Churchill was bring the creation of the first units with special assignments - battalions of special service, he was interested in what name they have chosen - "hunters" or "scouts," his assistant replied - "No, sir, they want to be called "commando". So Churchill Dove green light to name who was born in South Africa and named the most bitter opponent of the British Empire, the Boer commandos, from late 19 and early 20 th century. Storms fully justified are considered forerunners of modern special forces. The qualities of the Boer commandos - accuracy and ability to shoot from any type of weapon, and any situation, the actions of small mobile groups, the ability to disguise themselves, merging with the surrounding area, durability and main - the ability to think, to change their tactics and adapt to circumstances - all this and today is a characteristic of each fighter's special forces in the world that we call commandos.

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