Wojskowa Formacja Specjalna GROM - Polish Special Force, established July 13, 1990, the (military unit № 2305). Grupa Reagowania Operacyjno Manewrowego-Mobilnego (GROM) - Mobile Rapid Reaction Force. Prepared for special operations, shares the direct effects and counter-terrorism missions.
The Group prepared for special operations in peacetime and during crisis or war. It is designed to perform specific tasks in the first place, to eliminate terrorist threats.
Its main task is to free the hostages trapped in the buses, trains, buildings, airplanes, ships and drilling platforms. In January 2008, GROM is subject to the new, fourth branch of the armed forces of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Poland - Special forces of Poland (Polish Wojska Specjalne Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej). Since the establishment of a fully professional unit. GROM soldiers are divided into so-called operators and on the strength of support. The latter include analysts, experts in the field of electronics, computer technology, explosives, and mechanics. Because of them, perhaps the interaction of individual groups. Group was originally formed from a four-team may, when necessary, to form larger groups. These groups consist of well-trained and equipped soldiers, each of which has two specialties, such as radio-telegraph operator, sniper, engineer, chemist, doctor, the driver. In addition, each undergoing a course of general training. Details on the organization and the size of the unit are hidden for reasons of secrecy.
In the 1970's and 1980's in Poland, there were several special units, but they were prepared for either decision purely military tasks (sabotage, disruption of communication, etc.), or counter-terrorist role. After the capture of the Polish Embassy in Bern, Polish dissidents in 1982, General Edwin Rozlubirski (Edwin Rozłubirski) proposed to establish a secret military unit to fight the threat of terrorism and other unconventional threats. However, initially this proposal was rejected by the Polish People's Army.
In 1989, many Jews were allowed to emigrate from the Soviet Union to Israel. Out of fear of Islamic extremists who oppose any increase in immigration to Israel, many Western European countries have decided not to assist in the dispatch of citizens in Israel. Poland, however, was one of the few countries that actually assisted in organizing the operation, later dubbed "Operation Bridge» (Operacja Most). After two Polish diplomats were shot dead in Beirut, Lt. Col. Slawomir Petelitsky was sent to Lebanon to provide security for displaced civilians and the diplomatic mission in Poland.
Upon his return to Poland, he presented his plan to create a special military unit of the Ministry of Defence, whose forces would be trained for special operations for the protection of Polish citizens in situations similar to the situation in Lebanon. His ideas were well received, and July 8, 1990 GROM was formally established as a military unit № 2305 (JW 2305).
Slawomir Petelitsky (Sławomir Petelicki) was selected as the first commander of the newly formed unit. As an officer specializing in intelligence and subversive actions, it is ideally suited to oversee the nascent formation. He gathered around him a group of like-minded officers and professionals, and decided on the selection of soldiers that will be suitable for participation in special operations. Because of the high risks associated special service, it was decided that all candidates must be professional soldiers. All new recruits from the first batch came from various existing special units of Polish Armed Forces, such as: 1 st independent assault battalion of Lyublintsa (1 Samodzielny Batalion Szturmowy) 6-th air assault brigade (6 Brygada Desantowo-Szturmowa) Polish military divers Sun Anti-terrorist police unit Various special teams units Reconnaissance teams of different divisions
Of all the recruits, only a small group managed to get training on the experience of SAS and psychological tests. Many of the first instructors were trained in special units of the United Kingdom and the United States. Currently GROM cooperates with other special groups of special forces of Poland: 1 Pułk Specjalny Komandosów - 1st Special Commando Regiment of the Lyublintsa and "Formosa" - Marine Special Forces. Also established cooperation with similar units of other NATO countries, for example:
British SAS British SBS U.S. Special Forces (Green Berets) U.S. special unit of U.S. Army Delta U.S. special forces Navy USA - SEALs - "Navy SEALs" Italian 9-meter air assault regiment «Col Moschin» German GSG 9 German KSK Netherlands BBE Canadian JTF2
During its formation, the first few years, GROM is a secret and totally hidden from the public. It was first mentioned in press reports in 1992 and became known to the public in 1994, after its first major military operation in Haiti. Prior to 1 October 1999 year, GROM was subordinate to the Polish Ministry of the Interior, after which the command was transferred to the Army.
Notable transactions Fall 1994 - an operation to maintain democracy in Haiti (awarded the American Medal of Thankful (English) - the first time that a foreign operation expressed confidence in a similar way); the end of 1990 - Search, accused of war crimes in former Yugoslavia; 2001 - Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan; 2001 - The war in Afghanistan; March 2003 - participation in Operation Iraqi Freedom. The entity was acting primarily near Basra in southern Iraq