събота, 5 март 2011 г.

Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit



The main producer: U.S. Name: B-2 Spirit Type: Strategic bomber Year of adopting: 1987
Strategic Bomber B-2 refers to the third generation of U.S. stealth aircraft first is the Lockheed SR-71, the second - Lockheed F-117, the fourth - McDonnell Douglas A-12, the fifth - the fighters Northrop YF-23 and Lockheed YF-22. B-2 is not an "invisible" because there are systems that can detect it. Still, the visibility of small aircraft provides a high probability of survival in combat.
B-2 is made under the "flying wing" and has no vertical tail. Function rudders perform split flaps, mounted on the wing tips. Airframe is constructed mainly of titanium and aluminum alloys with wide application of carbon fiber with bismaleimidnoy and polyamide matrices having high heat resistance compared to epoxy resins. The main bearing component design is a single-spar titanium caisson, located in front of the central part of the body and the adjacent intermediate sections to which are attached carbon fiber wing, with no restrictions.
The thickness of the monolithic titanium panels caisson reaches 23 mm. A number of titanium components fabricated using superplastic forming and diffusion bonding. Some of the titanium cladding panels - the most lengthy in American aviation. For example, a panel of the intermediate hull sections in the area of engine compartments have dimensions of 0.31 x3, 66 m, three times larger than previously used. Wing equal to 19.8 m - an unprecedented lengthy composite structures.
Form B-2 in the plan established in 1912 with straight lines, allowing to concentrate all the reflections in the horizontal plane in several key sectors of the bottlenecks. Uses "a four" pattern: Parallel front and rear edges of the hull and the edge of manholes, valves niches chassis and engine compartment, as well as the shells air intake form the X-shaped arrangement of four major sectors of reflection (on the two sectors of the front and rear hemispheres). With the lateral and frontal plane angle has almost no straight lines and flat surfaces. Sock wing has an internal radar absorbing structure styloid honeycombed used radio-absorbing coating. The front edge of the body sharp, without breaks, its sweep - 33 °. Trailing edge is shaped like a double W, external point of inflection is located about polurazmahe. The wing has a supercritical profile. Four engines mounted in pairs on both sides of the central part of the body near the bomb bay. To reduce the radar visibility nozzle engines are made flat. This also contributes to the organization of isotropic scattering of incident waves by a smooth conjugation of structural elements and the minimal number of protruding elements. Cracks on the external surfaces are sealed carefully, and engines and armament are internal layout. The crew - two men who are placed in hermetically sealed cabin. Jobs each equipped with a full set of controls. In the cabin climb the ladders through the nose landing gear compartment. In the compartment of the chassis is a button to start the engines and the inclusion of key-board systems that are used during take-off the alarm. Glazed cabin of the four sandwich panels provides an overview of the horizontal 200 °. The panels have a layer with fotoreaktsionnoy ability and are lightproof to light effects of nuclear explosions. Gold-coated glass does not pass through the radar radiation. Pilots must fly a plane in protivolazernyh glasses. Fuel tanks are located in wing and tail parts of the intermediate hull sections. Top of the fuselage behind the cockpit is the receiver of in-flight refueling of aircraft K-135 and KC-10.
By-wire flight control system with high-speed digital kvadrupleksnaya drives. Has four of the calculator and keep working for two failures. The system of air signals discreet, with 20 pressure sensors. The complex of onboard equipment includes navigation subsystem NSS, including the inertial unit IMU firm Kirfott associated with astroinertial block AIU firm Northrop. There are eight multi-colored LEDs on a CRT - four for each pilot. At the 20-series aircraft will be installed satellite navigation system.

Modifications:



Specifications:
Wingspan - 52.43 pm Aircraft length - 21.03 m. Aircraft height - 5.18 m. Bearing surface area - 477.52 m2. Empty weight - 56700 kg. Fuel weight - 74,845 kg. Take-off weight - 181,440 kg. Type of engine - Turbofan General Electric F-118-GE-110. Maximum speed - 950-1010 km / h. Service ceiling - 15,240 m Practical Range - 18,530 km.

Armament:
20 bombs the B-61 a total weight of 6,360 kg or 16 V-83 a total weight of 17,420 kg.

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